Types of skin pigmentation disorder Pigment, or melanin, is the substance which gives your skin, hair and eyes their colour. It is also responsible for freckles and moles, as well as for more unusual imperfections and marks in the skin. These are known as skin pigmentation disorders, some of which are more serious and life-affecting than others.
There are several types of skin pigmentation disorder, such as:
• Age spots or liver spots – these appear as the body’s ability to protect against sun damage deteriorates, causing melanin to form in patches
• Hyperpigmentation – this is when the skin produces too much melanin, causing birthmarks and other pigmentation problems
• Hypopigmentation, vitiligo and albinism – these are all conditions where the skin becomes lighter, and they are caused by the body producing too little melanin
• Hemangiomas – these are pink or red marks caused by the bunching together of small capillaries in the skin
• Port wine stains – these are a type of birthmark which appears as a large red or purple mark on the skin, caused by abnormal capillary development
• Melasma – this is a pigmentation problem which often appears during pregnancy as a result of hormonal changes in the body.
With the exception of albinism, most of these pigmentation disorders can be effectively treated using laser treatment.